A Guide to the Primary Sources of the Salem Witch Trials

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Recent Scholarship
Aronson, Marc
Witch-Hunt: Mysteries of the Salem Witch Trials (2005)
"A gripping, sophisticated narrative that establishes the contemporary relevance of this oft-recounted tale. A brilliant appendix discussing the relationship of historical events to Arthur Miller's The Crucible will be of great interest to readers of all ages." -- Mary Beth Norton

Baker, Emerson W.
A Storm of Witchcraft: The Salem Trials and the American Experience (2015)
Historians have speculated on a web of possible causes for the witchcraft that stated in Salem and spread across the region-religious crisis, ergot poisoning, an encephalitis outbreak, frontier war hysteria--but most agree that there was no single factor. Rather, as Emerson Baker illustrates in this seminal new work, Salem was "a perfect storm": a unique convergence of conditions and events that produced something extraordinary throughout New England in 1692 and the following years, and which has haunted us ever since.

Baker, Emerson W.
The Devil of Great Island: Witchcraft and Conflict in Early New England (2007)
In 1682, ten years before the infamous Salem witch trials, the town of Great Island, New Hampshire, was plagued by mysterious events: strange, demonic noises; unexplainable movement of objects; and hundreds of stones that rained upon a local tavern and appeared at random inside its walls. Town residents blamed what they called "Lithobolia" or "the stone-throwing devil." In this lively account, Emerson Baker shows how witchcraft hysteria overtook one town and spawned copycat incidents elsewhere in New England, prefiguring the horrors of Salem. In the process, he illuminates a cross-section of colonial society and overturns many popular assumptions about witchcraft in the seventeenth century.

Baker, Emerson W.
The New England Knight: Sir William Phips, 1651-1695 (1998)
This biography presents a well-rounded picture of Phips, one that looks at all phases of his colorful career. He was an unusual figure among colonial governors, and his very uniqueness, as well as his difficulties as governor, help us to understand the politics and society of New England during his era. Helped and hindered by his obscure origins, Phips struggled for advancement, and his struggle illustrates the fluid nature of the British Empire in the late seventeenth century.

Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum
Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft (1974)
"The stark immediacy of what happened in 1692 has obscured the complex web of human passion which had been growing for more than a generation before building toward the climactic witch trials. Salem Possessed explores the lives of the men and women who helped spin that web and who in the end found themselves entangled in it."

Breslaw, Elaine G.
Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies (1996)
With this important book, Elaine G. Breslaw has "found" Tituba, the elusive, mysterious, and often mythologized Indian woman accused of witchcraft in Salem in 1692 and immortalized in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Reconstructing the life of the slave woman at the center of the notorious Salem witch trials, the book traces Tituba from her likely origins in South America to Barbados, forcefully dispelling the commonly held belief that Tituba was African.

Carlson, Laurie Winn
A Fever in Salem: A New Interpretation of the New England Witch Trials (1999)
This interpretation of the New England Witch Trials offers an explanation of witchcraft's link to organic illness. Comparing the symptoms recorded in court records to those of the encephalitis epidemic in the early twentieth century, she argues that the victims suffered from the same disease.

Caruso, Beth M.
One of Windsor: The Untold Story of America's First Witch Hanging (2016)
Alice, a young woman prone to intuitive insights and loyalty to the only family she has ever known, leaves England for the rigid colony of the Massachusetts Bay in 1635 in hopes of reuniting with them again. Finally settling in Windsor, Connecticut, she encounters the rich American wilderness and its inhabitants, her own healing abilities, and the blinding fears of Puritan leaders which collide and set the stage for Americaís first witch hanging, her own, on May 26, 1647. This event and Aliceís ties to her beloved family are catalysts that influence Connecticutís Governor John Winthrop Jr. to halt witchcraft hangings in much later years. Paradoxically, these same ties and the memory of the incidents that led to her accusation become a secret and destructive force behind Cotton Matherís written commentary on the Salem witch trials of 1692, provoking further witchcraft hysteria in Massachusetts forty-five years after her death. The author uses extensive historical research combined with literary inventions, to bring forth a shocking and passionate narrative theory explaining this tragic and important episode in American history and in the life of Alice (Alse) Young, America's first witch hanging victim.

Crane, Elaine Forman
Witches, Wife-Beaters, & Whores: Common Law and Common Folk in Early America (2011)
The early American legal system permeated the lives of colonists and reflected their sense of what was right and wrong, honorable and dishonorable, moral and immoral. In a book full of the extraordinary stories of ordinary people, the author reveals the ways in which early Americans clashed with or conformed to the social norms established by the law. As trials throughout the country reveal, alleged malefactors such as witches, wife beaters, and whores, as well as debtors, rapists, and fornicators, were as much a part of the social landscape as farmers, merchants, and ministers. Ordinary people "made" law by establishing and enforcing informal rules of conduct. Codified by a handshake or over a mug of ale, such agreements became custom and custom became "law."

Demos, John P.
The Enemy Within: A Short History of Witch-Hunting (2009)
A cultural history of witch-hunting, from the Romans through McCarthy. The term witch-hunt is used today to describe everything from political scandals to school board shake-ups. But its origins are far from trivial. Long before the Salem witch trials, women and men were rounded up by neighbors, accused of committing horrific crimes using supernatural powers, scrutinized by priests and juries, and promptly executed. The belief in witchcraft--and the deep fear of evil it instilled in communities--led to a cycle of accusation, anger, and purging that has occurred repeatedly in the West for centuries

Demos, John P.
Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England (1st Edition) (1983)
By investigating the surviving historical documents of over a hundred actual witchcraft cases, Demos vividly recreates the world of New England during the witchcraft trials and brings to light fascinating information on the role of witchcraft in early American culture.

Foulds, Diane E.
Death in Salem: The Private Lives Behind the 1692 Witch Hunt (2010)
Salem witchcraft will always have a magnetic pull on the American psyche. During the 1692 witch trials, more than 150 people were arrested. An estimated 25 million Americans are descended from the twenty individuals executed. What happened to our ancestors? Death in Salem is the first book to take a clear-eyed look at this complex time, by examining the lives of the witch trial participants from a personal perspective.

Francis, Richard
Judge Sewall's Apology: The Salem Witch Trials and the Forming of an American Conscience (2006)
Biographer and novelist Francis looks at the Salem witch hunt of 1692 with fresh eyes, through the story of Samuel Sewall, New England Puritan, Salem trial judge, antislavery agitator, defender of Native American rights, utopian theorist, family man.

Gaskill, Malcolm
Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction (2010)
Malcolm Gaskill takes a long historical perspective, from the ancient world to contemporary paganism. This is a book about the strangeness of the past, and about contrasts and change; but it's also about affinity and continuity. He reveals that witchcraft is multi-faceted, that it has always meant different things to different people, and that in every age it has raised questions about the distinction between fantasy and reality, faith and proof. Delving into court records, telling anecdotes, and challenging myths, Gaskill re-examines received wisdom, especially concerning the European witch-hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Gaskill, Malcolm
Witchfinders: A Seventeenth-Century English Tragedy ()
"By spring 1645, two years of civil war had exacted a dreadful toll upon England. People lived in terror as disease and poverty spread, and the nation grew ever more politically divided. In a remote corner of Essex, two obscure gentlemen, Matthew Hopkins and John Stearne, exploited the anxiety and lawlessness of the time and initiated a brutal campaign to drive out the presumed evil in their midst ... Malcolm Gaskill retells the story of the most savage witch-hunt in English history ... Though their campaign was never legally sanctioned, they garnered the popular support of local gentry, clergy, and villagers ... [This story] serves as a reminder of the power of fear and fanaticism to fuel ordinary people's willingness to demonize others"

Gibson, Marion
Witchcraft Myths in American Culture (2007)
An examination of how Americans think about and write about witches, from the 'real' witches tried and sometimes executed in early New England to modern re-imaginings of witches as pagan priestesses, comic-strip heroines and feminist icons.

Gibson, Marion
Reading Witchcraft: Stories of Early English Witches (1999)
In this original study of witchcraft, Gibson explores the stories told by and about witches and their 'victims' through trial records, early news books, pamphlets and fascinating personal accounts. The author discusses the issues surrounding the interpretation of original historical sources and demonstrates that their representations of witchcraft are far from straight forward or reliable. Innovative and thought-provoking, this book sheds new light on early modern people's responses to witches and on the sometimes bizarre flexibility of the human imagination.

Gildrie, Richard P.
The Profane, the Civil, & The Godly: Reformation of Manners in Orthodox New England 1679-1749 (1994)
In this prize-winning study of the sacred and profane in Puritan New England, Richard P. Gildrie seeks to understand not only the fears, aspirations, and moral theories of Puritan reformers but also the customs and attitudes they sought to transform. Topics include tavern mores, family order, witchcraft, criminality, and popular religion. Gildrie demonstrates that Puritanism succeeded in shaping regional society and culture for generations not because New Englanders knew no alternatives but because it offered a compelling vision of human dignity capable of incorporating and adapting crucial elements of popular mores and aspirations.

Godbeer, Richard
Escaping Salem: The Other Witch Hunt of 1692 (2005)
The Salem witch hunt of 1692 is among the most infamous events in early American history; however, it was not the only such episode to occur in New England that year. Escaping Salem reconstructs the "other witch hunt" of 1692 that took place in Stamford, Connecticut. Concise and accessible, the book takes students on a revealing journey into the mental world of early America, shattering the stereotype of early New Englanders as quick to accuse and condemn.

Gragg, Larry
A Quest for Security: The Life of Samuel Parris, 1653-1720 (1990)
The first book-length biography of Samuel Parris, the man who led the 1692 struggle against the scourge of witchcraft. While an examination of Samuel Parris's actions reveals his crucial part in the witchcraft crisis, this biography also serves as a reminder of the concern of early Americans to sustain economic independence for their families. Fully documented with endnotes and featuring a complete bibliography of primary and secondary works, this volume fills a noticeable gap in the literature on Salem witchcraft.

Hall, David D.
Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment (1990)
This book tells an extraordinary story of the people of early New England and their spiritual lives. It is about ordinary people--farmers, housewives, artisans, merchants, sailors, aspiring scholars--struggling to make sense of their time and place on earth. David Hall describes a world of religious consensus and resistance: a variety of conflicting beliefs and believers ranging from the committed core to outright dissenters. He reveals for the first time the many-layered complexity of colonial religious life, and the importance within it of traditions derived from those of the Old World. We see a religion of the laity that was to merge with the tide of democratic nationalism in the nineteenth century, and that remains with us today as the essence of Protestant America.

Hansen, Chadwick
Witchcraft at Salem (1988)
Trial documents and contemporary narratives are used in this discussion of the practice of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England.

Hill, Frances
A Delusion of Satan: The Full Story of the Salem Witch Trials (1995)
A study of the Salem witch trials applies contemporary psychology to the hysteria of the late 1600s, analyzing the Puritan mind and linking the trials to the "witch hunts" of the twentieth century

Hoffer, Peter Charles
The Devil's Disciples: Makers of the Salem Witchcraft Trials (1996)
Using "a set of conversations--in taverns and courtrooms, at home and work--which took place among suspected witches, accusers, witnesses, and spectators," the author "offers a fresh look at the Salem outbreak based on recent studies of panic rumors, teen hysteria, child abuse, and intrafamily relations."

Hoffer, Peter Charles
The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History (1997)
In late seventeenth-century New England, the eternal battle between God and Satan was brought into the courtroom. Between January 1692 and May 1693 in Salem, Massachusetts, neighbors turned against neighbors and children against parents with accusations of witchcraft, and nineteen people were hanged for having made pacts with the devil.

Hutton, Ronald
The Witch: A History of Fear, from Ancient Times to the Present (2017)
This book sets the notorious European witch trials in the widest and deepest possible perspective and traces the major historiographical developments of witchcraft. Hutton, a renowned expert on ancient, medieval, and modern paganism and witchcraft beliefs, combines Anglo-American and continental scholarly approaches to examine attitudes on witchcraft and the treatment of suspected witches across the world, including in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Australia, and North and South America, and from ancient pagan times to current interpretations. His fresh anthropological and ethnographical approach focuses on cultural inheritance and change while considering shamanism, folk religion, the range of witch trials, and how the fear of witchcraft might be eradicated.

Karlsen, Carol F.
The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England (1998)
Carol F. Karlsen reveals the social construction of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England and illuminates the larger contours of gender relations in that society.

LaPlante, Eve
Salem Witch Judge: The Life and Repentance of Samuel Sewall (2008)
In Salem Witch Judge, acclaimed biographer Eve LaPlante, Sewall's great-great-great-great-great-great-granddaughter, draws on family lore, her ancestor's personal diaries, and archival documents to open a window onto life in colonial America, painting a portrait of a man traditionally vilified, but who was in fact an innovator and forefather who came to represent the best of the American spirit.

Larner, Christine
Enemies of God: The Witch-Hunt in Scotland (1981)
For many years the European witch craze of the 16th and 17th centuries was considered a subject of almost "bad taste" to study. Then came World War II and a genocide which was the greatest convulsion of evil the world had ever seen. Scholars realized that the witch cult was still with us. This is the story of how a rapidly growing and civilized European nation could turn on itself in a frenzy of violence, and marginalize and kill its own people in a hysteria which became both self-perpetuating and self-justifying; of how otherwise sober and intelligent people could defend this killing, and of how a state could use mass murder as an instrument of state policy.

LeBeau, Bryan F.
The Story of the Salem Witch Trials: "We Walked in Clouds and Could Not See Our Way" (1998)
"A synthesis of the most recent scholarship on the subject, places the trials into the context of the Great European Witch-Hunt, and relates the events of 1692 to witch-hunting throughout seventeenth-century New England"

Mappen, Marc
Witches & Historians: Interpretations of Sale, (2nd Edition) (1980)
A nice selection of essays by many experts on the Salem witchcraft trials.

Mofford, Juliet Haines
Cry "Witch": the Salem Witch Trials, 1692 (1995)
Presents a collection of excerpts from journals, letters, government documents, essays, newspapers, and political cartoons highlighting the events of the Salem witch trials

Mofford, Juliet Haines
The Devil Made Me Do It: Crime and Punishment in Early New England (2012)
Scarlet Letters, wanton dalliances, Sabbath-breaking, and debt: Colonial laws were easily broken and the malefactors who broke them, swiftly punished. How did our ancestors deal with murder and mayhem? Drawing on early court dockets, diaries, sermons, gaolers' records, and other primary sources, Juliet Haines Mofford investigates historical cases from a time when accused felons often pleaded in their own defense: "The Devil made me do it!"

Norton, Mary Beth
In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (2003)
An account of the events at Salem, as they were understood by those who lived through the frenzy. Describing the situation from a seventeenth-century perspective, Norton examines the crucial turning points, the accusers, the confessors, the judges, and the accused, among whom were thirty-eight men. She also demonstrates how the Indian wars on the Maine frontier impacted the people involved with the trials.

Oldridge, Darren
The Witchcraft Reader (2nd ed.) (2008)
The Witchcraft Reader draws together the best historical writing on the subject, exploring the origins and consequences of the fear of witches. The book traces the development of witch beliefs in the late Middle Ages, the social and political dynamics of witch-hunts in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the continuing relevance of the subject today. This second edition has been extensively revised and updated to include important new research in the field. There are expanded sections on witchcraft in the Middle Ages and the role of gender in witch trials, as well as new work on demonic possession and the decline and survival of witch beliefs.

Reis, Elizabeth
Spellbound: Women and Witchcraft in America (1998)
A collection of twelve articles that explore crucial events in the history of witch-hunting and its demonization of women in America and American women's own use of witchcraft as a source of identity and strength, as well as the complicated relationship between the two. Beginning with the accused 'witches' of colonial America, Spellbound extends its focus through the nineteenth century to explore women's involvement with alternative spiritualities, and culminates with examinations of the contemporary feminist neopagan and Goddess movements.

Reis, Elizabeth
Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England (1997)
In Reis' analysis of the cultural construction of gender in early America, she explores the intersection of Puritan theology, Puritan evaluations of womanhood, and the Salem witchcraft episodes. She finds in that intersection the basis for understanding why women were accused of witchcraft more often than men, why they confessed more often, and why they frequently accused other women of being witches. In the process of negotiating their beliefs about the devil's powers in practical ways, both women and men embedded womanhood in the discourse of depravity. Women and men feared hell equally but the Puritan culture encourage women to believe that it was their vile natures which would take them there rather than the particular sins they may have committed.

Roach, Marilynne K.
The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege (2002)
"The Salem Witch Trials is based on over twenty-five years of original archival research (including the author's discovery of previously unknown documents), as well as on newly found cases and court records. From January 1692 to January 1697, this history unfolds a nearly day-by-day narrative of the crisis as the citizens of New England experienced it, while providing details of the communal, colonial, and international events that influenced the witch scare and trials. Illustrated with dozens of photos, drawings, and maps, The Salem witch trials is both indispensable and compelling"

Roach, Marilynne K.
Six Women of Salem: The Untold Story of the Accused and Their Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials (2013)
"What was it like to be there and, if you were lucky, to live through it? In a compelling combination of narrative and groundbreaking historical research, Salem Witch Trial scholar Marilynne K. Roach vividly brings the terrifying times to life while skillfully illuminating the lives of the accused, the accusers, and the afflicted."

Robinson, Enders
The Devil Discovered: Salem Witchcraft 1692 (1991)
Three centuries ago in 1692, nearly two hundred people were imprisoned, twenty were executed, and eight died in jail. This fascinating study sheds new light on the bizarre events which haunted Puritan Massachusetts in that year of mounting terror. The evidence in this book proves conclusively that human conspiracy lay at the base of this tragedy

Robinson, Enders
Salem Witchcraft and Hawthorne's House of the Seven Gables (1992)
This book offers a detailed and highly readable account of the Salem witchcraft affair of 1692. Its publication coincides with the tercentenary observance of the events that form one of the grimmest chapters in colonial American history.

Silverman, Kenneth
The Life and Times of Cotton Mather (1984)
Kenneth Silverman's Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of the most celebrated of all New England Puritans, at once a sophisticated work which succeeds admirably in presenting a complete portrait of a complex man and a groundbreaking study that accurately portrays Mather and his contemporaries as the first true American rather than European expatriates.

Starkey, Marion L.
The Devil in Massachusetts: A Modern Inquiry into the Salem Witch Trials (1949)
Motivated in part by the question of how the Holocaust could have happened, Starkey delved into the Salem archives to explore the underpinnings of an earlier American tragedy: the Salem Witch Trials. Working from court records, she created a psychological portrait tracing the development of the event from child fantasies to societal hysteria, eventually publishing in 1949 The Devil in Massachusetts: A Modern Enquiry into the Salem Witch Trials. Arthur Miller is said to have used this work in his research for The Crucible.

Weisman, Richard
Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th-Century Massachusetts (1984)
Explains the social processes underlying support and resistance to collective action against witchcraft in seventeenth-century Massachusetts; providing theological interpretations of witchcraft, focusing on the relationship between witchcraft and magic, and considering the interrelationships between the two.

Primary Sources
Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum
Salem-Village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England (1993)
Few episodes in American history have aroused such intense and continued interest as the 1692 Salem witchcraft trials. This volume draws exclusively on primary documents to reveal the underlying conflicts and tensions that caused that small, agricultural settlement to explode with such dramatic force. Offering an extensive and focused group of source readings, the collection encourages readers to draw conclusions based on the evidence and to participate in the process of historical analysis.

Cooper, Jr., James F. and Kenneth K. Minkema
The Sermon Notebook of Samuel Parris, 1689-1694 (1993)
The Sermon Notebook of Samuel Parris presents for the first time all of the extant sermons that Parris preached before his congregation from his ordination in 1689, through the summer trials and executions in 1692, and into the aftermath of the controversy, when an angry congregation forced Parris from office

Godbeer, Richard
The Salem Witch Hunt: A Brief History with Documents (1st Edition) (2011)
In his introduction to this compact yet comprehensive volume, Richard Godbeer explores the beliefs, fears, and historical context that fueled the witch panic of 1692. The documents in this collection illuminate how the Puritans' worldview led them to seek a supernatural explanation for the problems vexing their community. Presented as case studies, the carefully chosen records from several specific trials offer a clear picture of the gender norms and social tensions that underlie the witchcraft accusations.

Cross-reference of contents

Hill, Frances
Witches of the Atlantic World: A Historical Reader & Primary Sourcebook (2000)
This unique anthology is the first to provide a multicultural perspective on witchcraft from the 15th to 18th century. Featuring primary documents as well as scholarly interpretations, Witches of the Atlantic World builds upon information regarding both Christian and non-Christian beliefs about possession and the demonic. Elaine G. Breslaw draws on Native American, African, South American, and African-American sources, as well as the European and New England heritage, to illuminate the ways in which witchcraft in early America was an attempt to understand and control evil and misfortune in the New World.

Levack, Brian P.
The Witchcraft Sourcebook (2004)
This fascinating collection of documents illustrates the development of ideas about witchcraft from ancient times to the twentieth century. Many of the sources come from the period between 1400 and 1750, when more than 100,000 people -- mainly women --were prosecuted for witchcraft in Europe and colonial America. Including trial records, demonological treatises and sermons, literary texts, narratives of demonic possession, and artistic depiction of witches, the documents reveal how contemporaries from various periods have perceived alleged witches and their activities. Brian P. Levack shows how notions of witchcraft have changed over time. He looks at the connection between gender and witchcraft and the nature of the witch's perceived power.

Levin, David
What Happened in Salem? (2nd Edition) (1960)
Documents pertaining to the seventeenth-century witchcraft trials.

Cross-reference of contents

Rosenthal, Bernard
Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (2009)
This book represents the first comprehensive record of all legal documents pertaining to the Salem witch trials, in chronological order. Numerous newly discovered manuscripts, as well as records published in earlier books that were overlooked in other editions, offer a comprehensive narrative account of the events of 1692-93, with supplementary materials stretching as far as the mid - 18th century. The book may be used as a reference book or read as an unfolding narrative. All legal records are newly transcribed, and errors in previous editions have been corrected. Included in this edition is a historical introduction, a legal introduction, and a linguistic introduction. Manuscripts are accompanied by notes that, in many cases, identify the person who wrote the record. This has never been attempted, and much is revealed by seeing who wrote what, when.


Trask, Richard B.
"The Devil Hath Been Raised": A Documentary History of the Salem Village Witchcraft Outbreak of March 1692 (1st Edition) (1992)
The Salem witchcraft outbreak of 1692 is one of the most notorious incidents of colonial American history. Historian Richard B. Trask has re-examined, newly transcribed and arranged in chronological order all the legal, ecclesiastical and other surviving documentary sources relating to the beginnings of the witchcraft hysteria during the initial and critical month of March 1692.

Fiction and Drama
Condé, Maryse
I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem (1994)
This wild and entertaining fiction novel expands on the true story of the West Indian slave Tituba, who was accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, arrested in 1692.

Howe, Katherine
The Physick Book of Deliverance Dane: A Novel (2009)
While readying her grandmother's abandoned home for sale, Connie Goodwin discovers an ancient key in a seventeenth-century Bible with a scrap of parchment bearing the name Deliverance Dane. In her quest to discover who this woman was and seeking a rare artifact--a physick book--Connie begins to feel haunted by visions of the long-ago witch trials and fears that she may be more tied to Salem's past than she could have imagined

Kent, Kathleen
The Heretic's Daughter (2009)
Salem, 1752. Sarah Carrier Chapman, weak with infirmity, writes a letter to her granddaughter that reveals the secret she has closely guarded for six decades: how she survived the Salem Witch Trials when her mother did not.

Miller, Arthur
The Crucible (1952)
One of the true masterpieces of twentieth-century American theater, The Crucible brilliantly explores the threshold between individual guilt and mass hysteria, personal spite and collective evil. It is a play that is not only relentlessly suspenseful and vastly moving, but that compels readers to fathom their hearts and consciences in ways that only the greatest theatre can.

Speare, Elizabeth George
The Witch of Blackbird Pond (1958)
In this Newbery Medal-winning novel, a girl faces prejudice and accusations of witchcraft in seventeenth-century Connecticut. A classic of historical fiction that continues to resonate across the generations.


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